How Pedro Sánchez Secured Re-election as President of the Spanish Government (2023)

Pedro Sánchez, the leader of the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE), has been re-elected as the president of the Spanish government for the next four years. This re-election comes after a period of high political and social tension in Spain. Sánchez obtained a total of 179 votes in the Congress of Deputies, surpassing the required 176 votes for a majority.

The Path to Re-election

Spain operates under a parliamentary system, where the prime minister needs the support of the majority of parliamentarians to take office. In the recent elections, the conservative People's Party (PP) received the most votes, with 137 seats in parliament. The PSOE came in second, with 121 seats.

To secure his re-election, Sánchez had to seek the support of rival parties to bridge the gap between the 122 seats won by the PSOE and the 176 seats required for an absolute majority. This involved months of intense negotiations and controversial agreements. Sánchez formed alliances with various left-wing, nationalist, and separatist parties, collectively known as the "investiture bloc" .

One of the key agreements was made with Sumar, a left-wing movement group led by Yolanda Díaz, who is now the vice-president of the Spanish government. This agreement focused on labor and wage-related issues, such as reducing the working hours from 40 to 37.5 hours per week.

Sánchez also formed agreements with other parties, including the Galician Nationalist Bloc (BNG), the Canarian Coalition (CC), and Basque nationalist and separatist parties such as the Basque Nationalist Party and Bildu. These agreements covered a range of issues, from expanding labor rights to debt forgiveness and the transfer of powers.

However, the agreements that sparked the most controversy were those signed with two Catalan separatist parties, the Republican Left of Catalonia (ERC) and Together for Catalonia. These agreements included measures such as debt forgiveness for the Catalan government and a controversial amnesty law that would benefit individuals involved in the Catalan independence movement.

The Controversial Amnesty Law

The Catalan separatist movement and its relationship with the Spanish government have been a contentious issue in Spanish politics for over a decade. The peak of tension was reached in 2017 with the illegal unilateral declaration of independence by the Catalan government, which led to the conviction of several political leaders and citizens involved in the movement.

In a move that further fueled controversy, the parliamentary group of the PSOE recently presented a proposal for an amnesty law. This proposal aims to temporarily annul certain crimes related to the promotion of Catalan secession or independence. It is estimated that around 400 people, including politicians, Catalan leaders, social activists, and police officers involved in the process, could benefit from this amnesty .

The proposed amnesty law has faced strong opposition from parties such as the People's Party and Vox, who argue that it undermines the principle of separation of powers and allows the legislative branch to override judicial decisions. Several associations of judges and prosecutors have also expressed concerns about the potential impact on democracy.

Political and Social Tensions

Pedro Sánchez's re-election took place amidst heightened security measures in the Congress and widespread protests across Spain, particularly in Madrid. These protests, led by the People's Party, attracted hundreds of thousands of people and continued for nearly two weeks. Some of the demonstrations turned violent.

In his inaugural speech, Sánchez defended the amnesty law, acknowledging that it may not be universally supported but emphasizing the need to address the demands of a significant portion of Catalan society. However, the opposition parties have warned that the stability of the legislature will depend on the fulfillment of the agreements made .

Sánchez now faces the challenge of governing with both the opposition parties and the separatists closely monitoring his actions. The outcome of these agreements and the impact on Spanish politics and society remain to be seen.


Pedro Sánchez's re-election as the president of the Spanish government was the result of intense negotiations and controversial agreements with various political parties. The amnesty law proposed as part of these agreements has generated significant debate and opposition. As Sánchez begins his new term, he faces the challenge of governing amidst political and social tensions in Spain.

Keywords: Pedro Sánchez, re-election, Spanish government, parliamentary system, investiture bloc, Catalan separatism, amnesty law, political tensions, social tensions


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